Determination of dominant hemisphere as a perspective direction in the development of critical thinking of medical students
The methods of determining of the dominant cerebral hemisphere and a perspective direction of development of critical thinking of medical students considering functional asymmetry are reported in the article.
Introduction. The functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres (FAH) - is totality of different functional areas and connections, formed in the process of specialization, providing fixed certain actions mainly and analysis involving different measurement categories in each of the hemispheres, with further joint synthesis.
The left hemisphere is responsible for the abstract symbolic analysis, drafting of logical chains, distribution of information on certain structural links, logical thinking, while the right hemisphere operates with specific images, summarizes and synthesizes the information ensures the integrity of perception, spatial imaginative thinking.
Therefore, depending on the domination of a hemisphere there are three main groups of people: right-brained, left-brained and ambidexters - both hemispheres are equivalent significant in perception and analyzing of information. Approximately 90% of the world population have dominant right hand, but it does not give reason to think that the left hemisphere is more important in forming of the individuality. Hemispheric specialization holds the important place in the work of the future doctor. The development of interhemispheric relations allow to assess the situation effectively, which requires quick and creative solutions; to build logic plan for correct diagnosis; to take into consideration the features of each patient and apply effective preventive measures based on the experience of observation.
Materials and methods. Research of functional asymmetry of the hemispheres (FAH) was done among 1st-3rd-year students of the medical and dental faculties of VNMU by questioning. Age 17-20 years of respondents corresponds to period of the completion of functional asymmetry of the brain that is associated with the choice of priority activity that meets the adequate assessment of their capabilities and the type of thinking. The number of respondents was 1532. The sex ratio was 67.8% (1039/1532) women and 32.2% (493/1532) of men.
A questionnaire was developed for the study, which included classical tests to determine the dominant hemisphere considering manual asymmetry.
It was revealed among women: left-brained (LB) -73.6% (764), ambidexter (A) - 17.4% (181), right-brained (RB) -9.0% (94).
It was revealed among men: LB - 79.93% (394), A-11.6% (57), RB-8,47% (42). These indices belie significant differences in the prevailing dominance of a hemisphere and suggest a minor role in the formation of sex functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres.
Results. Numerous studies indicate that the hemispheric asymmetry in left-handers less pronounced than in right-handers, approaching of functionality right and left hand is met frequently. Therefore it is impossible to do a clear correlation between the dominance of the right hemisphere and the leading left hand, also it is an important external factor to learn left-handers use right hand that causes changes in labile system of connections of the brain in early age .
The research of FAH is an important test, which is required to choose a future profession.
So it is perspective to determine the dominant hemisphere and to implement practice into learning process that ensures the development of spatio-shaped and logical thinking in medical students; to use in practical classes of situational problems requiring holistic analysis and justification of the action in a certain period of time.
Since the gender structure on a single hemisphere dominance does not have significant differences, it can be assumed effective using of common methods of functions activation and enhance their cooperation in both sexes.
Conclusions. Research of functional asymmetry of hemispheres is an important test, which is required to select a future career with the specifications that are characteristic of dominant hemisphere that will ensure the harmonious development and self-realization of individuals and effective use of its abilities.