Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The new approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious consequence of induction of ovulation, as part of assisted conception techniques. Although the ultimate physiologic mechanism of OHSS is not yet known, there are well-known risk factors that must be considered during the administration of medications to treat infertility. The clinical course of OHSS may involve, according to its severity and the occurrence of pregnancy, electrolytic imbalance, neurohormonal and hemodynamic changes, pulmonary manifestations, liver dysfunction, hypoglobulinaemia, febrile morbidity, thromboembolic phenomena, neurological manifestations and adnexal torsion. Specific approaches such as paracentesis, pleural puncture, surgical approach of OHSS and specific medication during OHSSwere evaluated sporadically. Moreadequate treatment methods wouldrequire abetter understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, to promote an etiopathogenic therapeutic approach. The following review aims to examine the available evidence to guide best practice in diagnosis, treatment and preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.