Morphometric studies of the damaged skin area after experimental thermal trauma and during correction with a cryo-lyophilized xenograft skin substrate
According to WHO, burns rank third place among other injuries, and in some countries, the second, after traffic injuries. One of the promising tools for treating burn wounds is the use of lyophilized xenograft skin substrate. The purpose of this work was to determine the morphometric parameters of the affected by burns area of the skin in the dynamics after an experimental thermal trauma and in the case of correction by crushed lyophilized xenograft skin substrate. Burning of third degree on the shaved skin of the back of the guinea pig was applied to the vapor under general anesthetic. Morphometrically, at 7, 14, and 21 days of the experiment, the thickness of the epidermis (thin skin without a layer of scales), the number of fibroblast cells per unit area, the outer and inner diameter of the capillaries were determined in the boundary and central areas of the wound. Morphometric studies were carried out using programs VideoTest-5.0, KAAPA Image Base and Microsoft Exсel on a personal computer. Statistical processing of the obtained quantitative data was carried out using methods of variation statistics with the determination of the mean arithmetic and its error (M±m), Student’s criterion (t) and reliability index (p). Differences are considered valid at р≤0.05. It has been established that already in the 7 day of the experiment, under conditions of wound closure by xenograft skin substrate marked a significant thickening of the epidermis on the periphery of the wound appear. Activation of the process of boundary epithelization contributes to the renewal of components of the microcirculatory bed, the formation of granulation tissue. It was found that on the 14 day of application of the corrective factor in the peripheral zone of the wound, the number of cells of the fibroblast row and the mean value of the thickness of the epidermis reach their peak value, significantly (p<0.001) exceeding such indices of animals in intact group and group of animals without correction. The morphometric parameters of capillaries in this period of the experiment indicate a good development of the microcirculation, which improves regional epithelization. On the 21 day of the experiment, under the condition of correction, the border between the regional and central parts of the wound is almost lost. Thus, the results of morphometric studies indicate that the use of cryo-lyophilized xenograft skin substrate after a thermal trauma of the skin contributes to the healing of the wound defect with the formation of connective tissue of the dermis, angiogenesis, and complete epithelization of the surface of the affected epidermis layer.
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