Structural changes of the intestinal epithelial barrier of the duodenum of rats in burn injury of skin under experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus
The aim of the study was to study the structural changes of the intestinal epithelial barrier in the duodenum in burn injury of skin in rat under experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The study was carried out on laboratory white adult rats-males weighing 180-210 g. The control group consisted of 21 animals without somatic pathology, the first experimental group was 21 rats with burn skin injury, the second experimental group was 21 rats with burn skin and experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The experimental diabetes model was reproduced by administering streptozotocin to the rats intraperitoneally at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Thermal burn skin damage in rats corresponded to II – A-B degrees of dermal surface burn (according to the old classification III – A degree) with a total area of 21-23 % of the body surface with the development of burn shock. Duodenum was selected for morphological studies, fragments of which were processed by conventional methods of light and electron microscopy. The main criteria for assessing damage to the duodenal mucosa enterocytes were the results of a study comparing histological and ultrastructural data in dynamics at 7, 14, and 21 days after skin burns. The results of the studies showed that the base of damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier of the duodenum are deep destructive changes, which after 21 days (in the stage of septicotoxemia), as a rule, are not reverse and develop on the background of significant intoxication of the body. There was a decrease in the number of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelial barrier of the duodenum of rats of the first and second experimental groups and a loss of ordering (acquisition of some chaotic nature) of their localization as the time after burn injury increased. For the most part, the intestinal epithelial barrier loses the integrity of the cellular component with partial preservation of the basement membrane (the first occurs both due to necrosis of the enterocytes with a brush border and due to complete destruction of goblet cells). In all cases, defects exist in the intestinal epithelial barrier, which are potential pathways for paracellular translocation of the pathogenic contents of the duodenum. It is not inconceivable that part of this intestinal pathogenic content can be translocated also by partially damaged cells. Evidence of the latter is the presence of microbial bodies in the cytoplasm of cells with partially destroyed plasmalemma (but preserved organelles and nucleus). An adaptive mechanism for ensuring the repair of damaged enterocytes is selective autophagy, which acts as a factor in the recycling of destroyed organelles and the cytoplasmic matrix, aimed primarily at maintaining cell viability.
 Azpiroz, F., & Malagelada, C. (2016). Diabetic neuropathy in the gut: pathogenesis and diagnosis. Diabetologia, 59(3), 404-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1
 Blandino, G., Inturri, R., Lazzara, F., Di Rosa, M., & Malaguarnera, L. (2016). Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus. Diabetes & metabolism, 42(5), 303-315. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.04.004
 Cherkasov, V. G., Kovalchuk, A. I., Dzevulskaya, I. V., Malikov, A. V., Lakhtadyr, T. V., & Matkivskaya, R. M. (2015). Structural transformations in the internal organs with infusion therapy for burn disease. Medical science of Ukraine, 11(3-4), 4-11.
 Cherkasov, V. G., Kovalchuk, А. I., Dzevulskaya, I. V., & Cherkasov, E. V. (2015). Evaluation of the effect of infusion of composite hyperosmolar solutions on the structure of neuroimmunoendocrine system organs in burn diseas. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 4(9), 51-61.
 Costantini, T. W., Loomis, W. H., Putnam, J. G., Drusinsky, D., Deree, J., Choi, S., ... & Coimbra, R. (2009). Burn-induced gut barrier injury is attenuated by phosphodiesterase inhibition: effects on tight junction structural proteins. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 31(4), 416-422. doi: 10.1097/SHK. obo13e3181863080
 Dzevulska, І. V., Kovalchuk, О. І., Cherkasov, E. V., Majewskyi, О. Y., Shevchuk, Y. G., Pastukhova, V. A., & Kyselova, T. M. (2018). Influence of lactoproteinum solution with sorbitol on dna content of cells of endocrine glands on the background of skin burn in rats. World of medicine and biology, 14(64), 033-039. doi: 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-2-64-33-39
 Elshaer, D., & Begun, J. (2017). The role of barrier function, autophagy, and cytokines in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In Seminars in cell & developmental biology (Vol. 61, pp. 51-59). Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.08.018
 Evers, L. H., Bhavsar, D., & Mailänder, P. (2010). The biology of burn injury. Experimental dermatology, 19(9), 777-783. doi: 10. 1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01105.x
 Galunko, G. M. (2017). Histological changes in the small intestine in the advanced stages of burn diseases. World of Medicine and Biology, 3(61), 90-96. doi: 10.26724/ 2079-8334-2017-3-61-90-96
 Gotfried, J., Priest, S., & Schey, R. (2017). Diabetes and the small intestine. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol, 15(4), 490-507. doi: 10.1007/s11938-017-0155-x
 Gunas, I., Dovgan, I., & Masur, O. (1997). Method of intermal burn trauma correction by means of cryoinfluence. Abstracts are presented in zusammen mit der Polish Anatomical Society with the participation of the Association des Anatomistes Verhandlungen der Anatomishen Geselleschaft, Olsztyn (p. 105). Jena-Munchen: Der Urban & Fisher Verlag.
 Gunas, I. V., Guminskiy, Y. I., Ocheretn, N. P., Lysenko, D. A., Kovalchuk, О. І., Dzevulska, І. V., & Cherkasov, E. V. (2018). Indicators cell cycle and dna fragmentation of spleen cells in early terms after thermal burns of skin at the background of introduction 0.9% NaCl solution. World of Medicine and Biology, 14(63), 116-120. doi: 10.26.724/2079-8334-2018-1-63-116-120
 Gunas, I. V., Kovalchuk, O. I., Cherkasov, V. G., & Dzevulskaya, I. V. (2014). Structural aspects of the organs adaptive changes of the neuroimundocrine system in the treatment of burn disease with combined hyperosmolar solutions. Galician Medical Herald, 21(2), 21-26.
 Hietbrink, F., Besselink, M. G., Renooij, W., de Smet, M. B., Draisma, A., van der Hoeven, H., & Pickkers, P. (2009). Systemic inflammation increases intestinal permeability during experimental human endotoxemia. Shock, 32(4), 374-378. doi: 10.1097/SHK.obo13e318a2bcd6
 Huang, Y., Feng, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, P., Wang, F., & Ren, H. (2018). Severe burn-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in mice. Frontiers in physiology, 9, 441. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00441
 Ihana-Sugiyama, N., Nagata, N., Yamamoto-Honda, R., Izawa, E., Kajio, H., Shimbo, T., ... & Noda, M. (2016). Constipation, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation, but not diarrhea is associated with diabetes and its related factors. World journal of gastroenterology, 22(11), 3252-3260. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i11.3252
 Khoshbaten, M., Madad, L., Baladast, M., Mohammadi, M., & Aliasgarzadeh, A. (2011). Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms among persons with diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench, 4(4), 219-223. PMID: 24834186
 Knip, M., & Siljander, H. (2016). The role of the intestinal microbiota in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 12(3), 154-167. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.218.
 Natrus, L. V., Ryzhko, I. N., Kozak, A. I., Kryvosheieva, O. I., & Stechenko, L. A. (2017). Ultrastructural base of the connective tissue skin’cells interactions at burn injury in the hyperglycemic white rats. World of Medicine and Biology, 13(62), 157-162. doi: 10.26724/2079-83342017-4-62-157-162
 Netyukhailo, L. G., Kharchnko, S. V., & Kostenko, A. G. (2011). Pathogenesis of burn disease (in 2 parts). World of Medicine and Biology, (1), 127-135.
 Nighot, P. K., Hu, C. A., & Ma, T. Y. (2015). Autophagy enhancement of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier function by targeting claudin-2 degradation. J. Biol. Chem., 290, 7234-7246. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.597492
 Pasternak, A., Szura, M., Gil,. K., & Matyja, A. (2016). Interstitial cells of Cajal — systematic review. Folia Morphol., 75(3), 281-286. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0002
 Regas, F. C., & Ehrlich, H. P. (1992). Elucidating the vascular response to burns with a new rat model. J. Trauma, 32(5), 557-563. doi: 10.1097/00005373-199205000-00004
 Rodrigues, M. L., & Motta, M. E. (2012). Mechanisms and factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus. J. Pediatr., 88(1), 17-24. doi: 10.2223/JPED.2153
 Smolle, Ch., Cambiaso-Daniel, J., & Forbes, A. A. (2017). Recent trends in burn epidemiology woredwide: A systemic review. Burns, 43(2), 249-257. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2016.08.013
 Turner, J. R. (2009). Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease. Nat Rev. Immunol., 9(11), 799-809. doi: 10.1038/nri2653
 Vaarala, O., Atkinson, M. A, & Neu, J. (2008). The “Perfect Storm” for Type 1 Diabetes: the complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity. Diabetes, 57(10), 2555-2562. https://doi.org/10.2337/db08-0331
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.