Structural changes of the spleen in experimental obesity
The paper presents and analyzes data from an experimental study conducted on white rats in females and males of reproductive age. Obesity is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. The purpose of the research is to establish the morphometric and histological changes of the rat spleen parenchyma in experimental obesity and after the abolition of the high-calorie diet (HCD). We conducted a study on 70 white rats of reproductive age (2.5-6.5 months) weighing 120-280 g. High-calorie diet was achieved due to the fact that food was added sodium glutamate at a dose of 67 mg/kg of body weight of the rat. Controls were 10 white rats that received a standard vivarium diet instead of a high-calorie diet. Statistical processing of digital data was performed using Excel software and STATISTICA 6.0 using the parametric methods. Eight weeks after HCD, there was a significant decrease in the relative area of white pulp in the spleen parenchyma of white rats in males and females by 16.2% and 17.4%, respectively, and an increase in the relative area of red pulp by 5.6% and 6.2%, respectively. There is an immuno-inducing effect with enhanced proliferation of activated lymphocytes and their subsequent differentiation into plasma cells. Eight weeks after the abolition of HCD, the relative area of white pulp in the spleen parenchyma of white rats in males and females was 16.8% and 16.9% less than the parameters of the intact group of animals. Accordingly, the relative area of the red pulp by 5.8% and 6.1% exceeds the parameters of the intact group of animals. The area of the lymph nodes and the size of their reproductive centers decrease. The number of monocytes, macrophages and plasmocytes increases in the organ parenchyma. Hemosiderin residues occur both in the cytoplasm of macrophages and in intercellular spaces. Arteries with thickened wall, full-blooded, veins enlarged and full-blooded. The venous sinuses of the red pulp are dilated to contain hemosiderin residues. Thus, the depletion of lymphoid tissue with progression of mainly white pulp atrophy has been established. In the conditions of the eight-week abrogation of the HCD, no reverse changes in the structure of the parenchyma of the spleen were detected.
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