Submicroscopic changes of alveoli of respiratory department of lungs a day after experimental thermal trauma
Deep, large thermal burns are not limited to local lesions of tissues, they cause significant disruption of all systems and organs of the organism, change in metabolic processes. It is revealed that the primary links in the pathogenesis of burn disease are destruction of the skin, impaired neuroendocrine regulation and significant hemodynamic disorders. The reorganization of structures and impaired lung function, in response to a pathological process in the body, is attracting increasing attention of scientists. The aim of the study was to establish a submicroscopic rearrangement of the alveoli after a thermal lesion for 1 day after the experimental thermal trauma. Grade III burns were applied under ketamine anesthesia with copper plates heated in boiled water to a temperature of 97-1000С. The size of the lesion area was 18-20 % of the epilated surface of the body of rats. An experimental study of the structural components of lung alveoli after burn injury was performed on laboratory white male rats weighing 160-180 g. Euthanasia of rats was performed after ketamine anesthesia by decapitation. In the experiment, the study of the submicroscopic state of the walls of the alveoli of the lungs after thermal trauma was done. It is established that in the stage of shock after the application of burn injury – 1 day, in the alveoli of the respiratory department of the lung, there are adaptive compensatory and initial destructive changes of all structural components of the alveoli. Damage to the ultrastructure of the aerohematical barrier is manifested by intracellular edema and edema of the organelles of the endothelial cells, respiratory and secretory epitheliocytes, and the amount of heterochromatin increases in their deformed nuclei. The basement membrane also has signs of edema, sometimes homogeneous, fuzzy. The decrease in the number of vesicles and micropinocytotic vesicles in endothelial and respiratory epitheliocytes leads to impaired endothelial and alveolar metabolism. Numerous actively phagocytic alveolar macrophages with a well-expressed lysosomal apparatus are found in the alveoli. Initial alternative alterations of the ultrastructure of the components of the air-barrier barrier lead to disruption of gas exchange in the respiratory department of the lungs
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