Changes of the ultrastructural organization of cells of rats esophagus in the modeling of second-degree esophageal stricture

  • Ye.V. Shaprynskyi National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine
Keywords: esophageal cell ultrastructure, esophageal stricture, mitochondrial dysfunction.


Scar strictures that lead to obstruction of the esophagus do not tend to decrease lately, but on the contrary, the number of such patients is increasing, which is caused by the use of a large range of chemicals in human life. The results of treatment of scarring strictures depend on the degree of stenosis. With complete obstruction of the esophagus, the question arises about conducting surgical treatment. Methods of correction of esophageal strictures have a considerable number of postoperative complications and lethal consequences – from 5.0 % to 15.0 %. Therefore, in order to create a unified pathogenetic tactic for the management and treatment of esophageal strictures, we were offered to study the ultrastructural changes of the mucous membrane of the stricture of the second stage during its modeling in the experiment. The purpose of the work is to investigate the dynamics of ultrastructural changes of the mucous membrane of the esophagus wall in the normal and second stage of its stricture. The experimental study was performed on adult white male rats weighing between 250 and 300 g. A total of 16 animals were operated on, which were divided into 2 groups: a control group (6 rats) and a study group (10 rats). The studies were performed under ketamine anesthesia. In animals of the control group performed only laparotomy, followed by layer-by-layer suturing of the anterior abdominal wall. In animals of the study group created a model of obstruction of the esophagus of the second stage. Electron microscopic examination was performed on days 3, 4, and 5 of the experiment, eliminating animals by overdosing on ketamine. As a result of the electron microscopic study of the ultrastructural organization of basal, spinosum, superficial epitheliocytes of stratified squamous epithelium without keratin, smooth muscle myocytes of the muscular plate and contractile elements of the muscular layer of the esophagus of rats with simulated stricture of the second degree revealed dystrophic and destructive disorders that varied in depth and severity. It was established that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a decrease in the activity of reparative, metabolic and synthetic processes of the cell, which is indirectly manifested by a decrease in ribosomes and polysomes in the cytoplasm, loosening and focal lysis of membranes of the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Stricture of esophagus of the second stage causes activation of catabolic intracellular processes in all cells, which is morphologically confirmed by the appearance in the cytoplasm of secondary lysosomes and inclusions of lipids.


[1] Andreeshchev, S.A., Myasoedov, S.D., Usenko, A. Yu. & Movchan, B. B. (2008). Repeated operations on the artificial esophagus. Clinical surgery, 4-5.
[2] Boyko, V. V., Korolevska, A. Y., Savvi, S. O., Korolevska, A. Y., & Zhidetsky, V. V. (2018). Features of surgical tactics at long scarring of esophagus. Clinical surgery, 85(1), 52-55.
[3] Boyko, V. V., Savvi, S. O., Lazirsky, V. O., & Likhman, V. M. (2014). Artifical stomach: Gastric plastic is an ileocecal segment of the intestine. Kharkiv: Promin’.
[4] Boyko, V. V., Shaprinsky, V. O., & Shaprinsky, E. V. (2015). Treatment of scarring of esophagus. Kharkov Surgical School, 73(4), 152-155.
[5] Cerfolio, R. J., Wei, B., Hawn, M. T., Minnich D. J. (2016). Robotic esophagectomy for cancer: early results and lessons learned. Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 28(1), 160-169. doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2015.10.006
[6] Chadi, S. A., Fingergut, A., Berho, M., DeMeester, S. R., Fleshman, J. W., Hyman, N. H. … Wexner, S. D.. (2016). Emerging trends in the etiology, prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal anastomotic leakage. J. Gastrointest. Surg., 20(12), 2035-2051. doi: 10.1007/s11605-016-3255-3
[7] Chandrasoma, P. T., Der, R., Ma, Y., Peters, J., & DeMeester, T. (2003). Histologic classification of patients based on mapping biopsies of the gastroesophageal junction. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 27, 929-936.
[8] Iskit, S. H., Ozcelik, Z., Alkan, M., Türker, S., & Zorludemir, U. (2014). Factors affecting the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in childhood corrosive oesophageal strictures. Balkan Med. J., 31(2), 137–142. doi: 10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.13276
[9] Kachmar, W. M. (2016). Esophageal ruptures, mediastinitis - an individual approach to treatment. Hospital surgery. Journal of the name of L.Y. Kovalchuk, 1, 116-117.
[10] Kim, S. H., Jeong, J. B., Kim, J. W., Koh, S. J., Kim, B. G., Lee, K. L. … Shin, C. M. (2014). Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis. World J. Gastroenterol. 20(31), 10994-10999.
[11] Lazirsky, V. A., Boyko, V. V., Kryvorotko, I. V. & Savvi, S. A. (2014). The use of the ileocecal segment of bowel for reconstruction after combined gastrectomy. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 40, 11, 156. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2014.08.395
[12] Low, D. E., Alderson, D., Cecconello, I., Chang, A. C., Darling, G. E., DʼJourno X. B. … van Lanschot, J. J. (2015). International consensus of standardization of data collection for complications associated with esophagectomy: Esophagectomy Complications Consensus Group (ECCG). Ann. Surg., 262, 286-294.
[13] Melnyk, V. M., & Poida, O. I. (2016). Surgical tactics for the failure of sutures of intestinal anastomoses. Clinical surgery, 6, 8-12.
[14] Mori, H., Koike, M., Gotow, T., Ichimura, K., Asaoka, D., Oguro, M. ... Watanabe, S. (2011). Ultrastructural analyses of the rat esophageal stratified epithelium under normal conditions and in chronic reflux esophagitis, Archives of Histology and Cytology, 73(4-5), 199-214. doi: 10.1679/aohc.73.199
[15] Newton, N. J., Sharrock, A., Rickard, R., & Mughal M. (2017). Systematic review of the use of endo-luminal topical negative pressure in oesophageal leaks and perforations. Dis. Esophagus, 30(3), 1-5. doi: 10.1111/dote.12531
[16] Perbtani, Y., Suarez, A. L., & Wagh, M. S. (2016). Emerging techniques and efficacy of endoscopic esophageal reconstruction and lumen restoration for complete esophageal obstruction. Endosc. Int. Open., 4(2), 136-142. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-107898.
[17] Reavis K. M. (2009). The esophageal anastomosis: how improving blood supply affects leak rate. J. Gastrointest. Surg., 13, 1558-1560. doi: 10.1007/s11605-009-0906-7
[18] Savvi, S. A., & Nevzorova, O. V. (2009). The clinical significance of ultrastructural changes in the esophagus after a chemical burn. International Medical Journal, 27(2), 73-74.
[19] Sarkisov, D. S., & Perov, Yu. L. (1996). Microscopic technique. Leadership. Moscow: Medicine.
[20] Senyutovich, R. V., Barannikov, K. V., Bodiak, V. Y., Shumko, B. I., Unguryan, V. P., & Chorny, O. V. (2016). Stapler esophageal anastomosis. Current trends. Hospital surgery. Journal of the name of L.Y. Kovalchuk, 2, 103-107. Режим доступу:
[21] Shaprynskyi, E. V., Nevzorov, V. P., & Nevzorova, A. F. (2013). Violation of the ultrastructure of esophageal cells with simulated esophageal stricture in experiment. Bulletin of problems of biology and medicine, 2(105), 4, 226-230.
[22] Shaprynskyy, Ye. V. (2016). Changes in the ultrastructural organization of cells of the mucous membrane of the esophagus of rats with simulated third-degree stricture. Clinical anatomy and surgery, 15(3), 6-10.
[23] Stein, H. J., Liebermann-Meffert, D., DeMeester, T. R., & Siewert, J. R. (1995). Threedimensional pressure image and muscular structure of the human lower esophageal sphincter. Surgery, 117, 692-698.
[24] Shafa, S., Sharma, N., Keshishian, J., & Dellon, E. S. (2016). The black esophagus: a rare but deadly disease. ACG Case Rep J., 3(2), 88-91. doi: 10.14309/crj.2016.9
[25] Swanson, E. W., Swanson, S. J., & Swanson R. S. (2012). Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilatation obviates the need for pyloroplasty at esophagectomy. Surg. Endosc. 26(7), 2023-2028. doi: 10.1007/s00464-012-2151-5
[26] Tertychny, A. S., Mamchenko, S. I., & Dubrovskaya, M. I. (2014). Morphological characteristics of the mucous membrane of the esophageal-gastric transition zone in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Experimental and clinical gastroenterology, 1, 30-34.
[27] Usenko, A. Yu., Lavrik, A. S., Andreeshchev, S. A., Movchan, B. B., & Doskuch, O. A. (2010). Comparative evaluation of various types of total and subtotal esophagoplasty. All-Ukrainian scientific-practical conference with international participation “Modern problems of breast surgery”. Kharkov: Promin’.
[28] Weickert, U., Wolf, A., Schröder, C., Autschbach, F., Vollmer, H. (2011). Frequency, histopathological findings, and clinical significance of cervical heterotopic gastric mucosa (gastric inlet patch ): a prospective study in 300 patients. Dis. Esophagus, 24, 63.
[29] Worrell, S., Mumtaz, S., Tsuboi, K., Lee, T. H., & Mittal, S. K. (2010). Anastomotic complications associated with stapled versus hand-sewn anastomosis. J. Surg. Res., 161(1), 9-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.07.004
[30] Zhang, D. H., Zhou, L. Y., Dong, X. Y., Cui, R. L., Xue, Y., & Lin, S. R. (2010). Factors influencing intercellular spaces in the rat esophageal epithelium. World J. Gastroenterol., 16, 1063-1069. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i9.1063
How to Cite
Shaprynskyi, Y. (2019). Changes of the ultrastructural organization of cells of rats esophagus in the modeling of second-degree esophageal stricture. Reports of Morphology, 25(3), 21-26.