Electronic microscopic research on periodont in experimental two-weight opioid action and after its over for four weeks

  • V.B. Fik Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Ye.V. Paltov Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Yu.Ya. Kryvko Higher Educational Communal Institution of Lviv Regional Council “Andrey Krupynsky Lviv Medical Academy”, Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: periodontium, opioid, abolition of the opioid, ultrastructure, experiment.


Due to the harmful effects of opioid agents in the uncontrolled use of them, it is impossible to ease the early manifestations of damage to the tissues and organs of the oral cavity, which is a pressing problem of today. The purpose of this work was to investigate the features of the sub-microscopic organization of the structural components of the periodontium under the action of an opioid analgesic for two weeks and its four-week withdrawal in the experiment. The study was conducted on 22 adult rats-males of the Wistar line, weighing 160 g, 4.5-6 months of age. Animals were administered intramuscularly daily, once a single opioid analgesic nalbuphine for the first two weeks, in terms of the mean therapeutic dose for the rat, as well as for the mean weight of the test group (0.212 mg/kg), and subsequent four weeks. The fragments of soft periodontal tissue were used for electron microscopic examination. Submicroscopically expressed destructive changes in periodontal tissues were not observed. However, the positive dynamics of regeneration of periodontal components at the ultrastructural level were also not revealed. In the cytoplasm of cells of the epithelium of the free part of the gums, there is destruction of organelles, partially damaged mitochondrial cristae, poorly contoured tonofilaments, shallow karyolemma invaginations, thickened areas and damaged desmosomal contacts. In the surface areas of the periodontium, the collagen fibers are partially stratified, there is moderate swelling of the intercellular substance of the connective tissue, part of the fibrocytes invaginating the karyolemma of the nucleus and placement of heterochromatin in the periphery. Ultrastructurally in the cytoplasm of the macrophage, lysosomes are detected, phagosomes are scarce, indicating a slight damage to the structures. In the gaps of the blood capillaries, blood cells are formed, mainly erythrocytes, in the perinuclear part of the cytoplasm of organelles are few, mitochondria with electron-light matrix and small cristae, perivascular edema is insignificant, there are destructively altered mitochondria in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of venules, the basement membrane is thickened, the perivascular spaces are enlarged. Thus, at the end of the sixth week of the experiment, no short-term irreversible changes in the ultrastructural organization of the periodontal components were detected in the short-term effect of the opioid for two weeks and its subsequent four-week cancellation. However, the complete restoration of the structural components of the periodontium is not observed, there are signs of reactive changes, reparative processes are slowed.


[1] Alinejad, S., Kazemi, T., Zamani, N., Hoffman, R.S., Mehrpour, O. (2015). A systematic review of the cardiotoxicity of methadone. EXCLI J., 14, 577-600. doi: 10.17179/excli2015-553.
[2] Attia, J. Z., Kamel, M. Y., Yousef, R. K. (2015). Safety of nalbuphine on neural tissues of rats and its efficacy in the treatment of acute herpetic pain in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Res. Opin. Anesth. Intensive Care, 2, 89-95. doi: 10.4103/2356-9115.172801
[3] Avdeev, O. V. (2010). Structural changes of periodontal tissues in experiment. Bulletin of dentistry, 71(2), 2.
[4] Carnaval, T. G., Sampaio, R. M., Lanfredi, C. B., Borsatti, M. A., & Adde, C. A. (2013). Effects of opioids on local anesthesia in the rat: a codeine and tramadol study. Braz. Oral. Res., 27(6), 455-462. doi: 10.1590/S1806-83242013000600003.
[5] Dolova, A. I. (2006). The use of the antioxidant of Mexidol in the complex treatment of chronic generalized periodontitis in patients suffering from opiate drug dependence (experimental clinical study). (Master’s thesis). Moskva
[6] Fedun, I. R. (2019). Features of clinic and treatment of periodontal diseases in drug addicted patients. (Master’s thesis). Danylo Halych National Medical University, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Lviv.
[7] Fik, V. B., Paltov, E. V., & Kryvko, Y. Y. (2018). Morphofunctional peculiarities of the periodontal tissue under conditions of simulated eight-week opioid effect. Deutscher Wissenschaftscherold German Science Herald, 1, 14-17. doi: 10.19221/201814
[8] Ghoneim, F. M., Khalaf, H. A., Elsamanoudy, A. Z., & Helaly, A. N. (2014). Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., 7, 7323-7341. PMID: 25550769 PMCID: PMC4270590
[9] Hasturk, H., & Kantarci, A. (2015). Activation and resolution of periodontal inflammation and its systemic impact. Periodontol. 2000, 69(1), 255-273. doi:10.1111/prd.12105
[10] Kayal, R. A., Elias, W. Y., Alharthi, K. J., Demyati, A. K., & Mandurah, J. M. (2014). Illicit drug abuse affects periodontal health status. Saudi Med. J., 35(7), 724-728. PMID: 25028230
[11] Liaqat, N., & Dar, S. H. (2017). Comparison of single-dose nalbuphine versus tramadol for postoperative pain management in children: a randomized, controlled trial. Korean J. Anesthesiol, 70, 184-187. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2017.70.2.184
[12] Mallappallil, M., Sabu, J., Friedman, E. A., & Salifu, M. (2017). What Do We Know about Opioids and the Kidney? Int. J. Mol. Sci., 18(1), 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010223
[13] Mello, N. K., Mendelson, J. H., Sholar, M. B., Jaszyna-Gasior, M., Goletiani, N., & Siegel, A. J. (2005). Effects of the mixed mu/kappa opioid nalbuphine on cocaine-induced changes in subjective and cardiovascular responses in men. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 618-632. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300631
[14] Nagpal, R., Yamashiro, Y., & Izumi, Y. (2015). The two-way association of periodontal infection with systemic disorders: an overview. Mediators Inflamm. 2015:793898. doi: 10.1155/2015/793898
[15] Pacheco, C. M. F., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Maltos, K. L. M., Calliari, M. V., Rocha, O. A., & Francischi, J. N. (2007). Local opioids in a model of periodontal disease in rats. Archives of Oral Biology, 52(7), 677-683. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.12.012
[16] Patalakha, O. V. (2019). Features of the immune response and optimization of treatment of generalized periodontitis in patients with toxic opioid hepatitis. (Master’s thesis). State Institution “I.I. Mechnikov Institute of Microbiology and Immunology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine”, Kharkiv.
[17] Radke, J. B., Owen, K. P., Sutter, M. E., Ford, J. B., & Albertson, T. E. (2014). The effects of opioids on the lung. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol., 46, 54-64. doi: 10.1007/s12016-013-8373-z
[18] Ranjan, R., Abhinay, A., & Mishra, M. (2018). Can oral microbial infections be a risk factor for neurodegeneration? A review of the literature. Neurol. India, 66, 344-351. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.227315
[19] Rosier, B. T., de Jager, M., Zaura, E., & Krom, B. P. (2014). Historical and contemporary hypotheses on the development of oral diseases: are we there yet? Front Cell Infect. Microbiol., 4, 92. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2014.00092
[20] Rotemberg, E., Salveraglio, I., Kreiner, M., Piovesan, S., Smaisik, K., Ormaechea, R., & Varela, A. (2015). Estado dental y periodontal de población en tratamiento por consumo de drogas: Estudio piloto. Rev. Odontoestomatología, 17(25), 34-39. http://www.scielo.edu.uy/scielo.php.
[21] Saini, G. K., Gupta, N. D., & Prabhat, K. C. (2013). Drug addiction and periodontal diseases. J. Indian Soc. Periodontol., 17, 587-591. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.119277.
[22] Seltenhammer, M. H., Marchart, K., Paula, P., Kordina, N., Klupp, N., Schneider, B. … Risser, D. U. (2013). Micromorphological changes in cardiac tissue of drug-related deaths with emphasis on chronic illicit opioid abuse. Addiction, 108(7), 1287-1295. doi: 10.1111/add.12106
[23] Shekarchizadeh, H., Khami, M.R., Mohebbi, S. Z., Ekhtiari, H., & Virtanen, J. I. (2013). Oral health of drug abusers: A review of health effects and care. Iran J. Public Health, 42(9), 929-40. PMCID: PMC4453891 PMID: 26060654
[24] Stempak, J. G., & Ward, R. T. (1964). An improved staining method for electron microscopy. J. Cell. Biol., 22(3), 697-701. doi: 10.1083/jcb.22.3.697
[25] Sun, D., Ye, T., Ren, P., & Yu, S. (2018). Prevalence and etiology of oral diseases in drug-addicted populations: a systematic review. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med., 11(7), 6521-6531 www.ijcem.com /ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0075796
[26] Vinogradova, O. M., & Shkrebniuk, R. Yu. (2015). Differential methods of treatment of periodontal tissue diseases on the background of diabetes. Clinical and experimental pathology, 51(1),205-208. http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/kep_2015_14_149
How to Cite
Fik, V., Paltov, Y., & Kryvko, Y. (2019). Electronic microscopic research on periodont in experimental two-weight opioid action and after its over for four weeks. Reports of Morphology, 25(3), 27-32. https://doi.org/10.31393/morphology-journal-2019-25(3)-05