Evaluation of protective effect of Thiocetam drug by morphological changes in the heart and vessels after administration of lead nanoparticles of various sizes (experimental study)
Introduction of nanotechnologies to the modern industry gave rise to new challenges. The issue of development and implementation of recommendations regarding the prevention of potential negative impact of lead nanoparticles on population health is of particular importance. The locally manufactured drug Thiocetam which possesses nootropic, antiischemic, antioxidative and membrane stabilizing properties has drawn our attention. The research aimed at studying the protective effect of Thiocetam in Wistar rats with simulated subchronic toxic effect of lead compounds of various sizes (by morphological changes in the heart and vessels). The experiments were conducted on Wistar rats (mean body weight of 160-180 g). Colloidal solutions of lead sulphide obtained by chemical synthesis with the use of sodium polyphosphate stabilizer, (PbS) with the mean size of 26-34 nm (1-PbS) and 50-80 nm (2-PbS), and lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 (3-Pb) in the ionic form were used in simulating the toxic effect, while normal saline solution was administered to the control group. The studied substances were injected (intraperitoneally daily 5 times a week) in a dose of 0.94 mg/kg (in lead equivalent). The toxic effects were evaluated after 60 injections (three months) and one month after the discontinuation of exposure with and without Thiocetam. The drug Thiocetam in the dose of 250 mg/kg had been administered to rats intragastrically on an empty stomach daily for one month. Histological slides of the rats’ myocardium and aortal wall were studied and morphometric analysis and statistical processing performed. In the postexposure recovery period (PEP) period a lower degree of interstitial swelling and myocardial blood vessel filling was observed, which was considered to be a regression of damage. After the administration of Thiocetam a pronounced transverse striation of cardiomyocytes, the density of collagen fibers around cardiomyocytes and microvessels were revealed, which indicated the protective effect of pharmacological correction. However, leukocyte infiltration was also found in the myocardial or aortic microvessels in the experimental groups. Aortic morphometric data revealed no differences between the PbS NPs groups and Pb(NO3)2, although the aortic wall morphology was quite preserved. The use of Thiocetam prevented dystrophic changes in the atrial epicardium and the aortic adventitia, which indicate cytoprotective and connective tissue effects. In the postexposure period without pharmacological correction a tendency to spontaneous recovery of morphological changes of the heart and aortic walls under the influence of PbS NPs and lead nitrate was observed. However, morphometric parameters demonstrate the absence of complete recovery be it with or without Thiocetam.
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