Meibomian Gland dysfunction and dry eye disease symptoms in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
An important problem to date is the dysfunction of meibomian glands in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of our work was to analyze the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction and signs of dry eye disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined 40 patients (80 eyes) with compensated type 2 diabetes mellitus and symptoms of dry eye disease, who made up the main group at the age of 54.00±8.00 years, and 30 patients (60 eyes) of practically healthy people, aged 51.00±8.00 years. All patients underwent visiometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, compression test to evaluate the secretion of meibomian glands, Schirmer’s test for compression before and after 30 min. Afterwards, Norn test, meibography, Demodex mite test, laboratory tests (lipidogram, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin). In addition, standard OSDI, McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire questionnaires were used and an average clipping rate of1 min was determined. Statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out using the license package “Statistica 8.0” using parametric estimation methods. Our study has shown that in patients with diabetes for more than 5 years, dry eye disease occurs more often and is dominated by moderate and severe severity. Each patient in the study group, together with the symptoms of dry eye, had signs of dysfunction of the meibomian glands of varying degrees of severity according to the compression test and objective symptoms of the disease. A significant difference was found between the clipping frequency in the control group and the main one (p≤0.01). Compared with the control group, patients with diabetes have a longer interval between the clipping movements. Meibography data show that patients in the primary group have changes in the meibomian glands in 90% of cases, while in the control group – 44%. Thus, it was found that patients with type 2 diabetes had dysfunction of meibomian glands of moderate severity in 90% of cases, which is associated with the duration of diabetes.
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