Micro- and ultrastructural organization of the uterine wall of a white laboratory rat under conditions of 4-week action of Nalbuphine
The world community is facing a problem that threatens the entire population of the planet – reproductive health. This is a multifactorial problem that requires an integrated approach and effective solutions. One of the important factors that is very difficult to control and which in itself is a problem, and its prevalence can be called an epidemic without exaggeration, is drug addiction. The solution of these problems determined the purpose of our work – to establish what changes occur at the micro- and ultrastructural levels under the action of opioids on the uterus of white laboratory rats. The method of hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for histological examination, and the method of electron microscopy was used for the study at the cellular level. After 4 weeks of administration of Nalbuphine to white laboratory rats on histological sections, significant changes were observed in all layers of the uterus. The vessels of the myometrium were dilated, overflowing with erythrocytes, sometimes containing neutrophils and lymphocytes, perivasally marked the appearance of macrophages, in the cytoplasm of which was golden-brown pigment. The development of vacuolar dystrophy was also observed in the myometrium. There were necrotic changes and vacuolar dystrophy in the epithelium of the uterine mucosa, and epitheliocytes in which necrotic changes occurred exfoliated into the lumen of the uterus. The outer surface of the perimetrium was uneven due to necrotic changes of the monolayer squamous epithelium. Hyperplasia of the stratified squamous epithelium was observed in the ectocervix, in the areas of which a chaotic accumulation of low-differentiated epithelial cells was found. Electron microscopy revealed that a significant number of smooth myocytes lost their characteristic process shape, their nuclei were deformed and were in the stage of apoptosis, karyopyknosis and even karyorrhexis. The nucleoplasm contained almost no nucleoli, and heterochromatin is located on the periphery of the nucleus. The enlightened cytoplasm is filled with myofilaments, which are randomly arranged in the cell. Mitochondria acquired various shapes and sizes, mostly with destroyed cristae and areas of enlightenment. Swollen connective tissue layers between myocytes testify to circulatory disorders. The damage described in the experiment at all levels indicates the destructive effect of Nalbuphine, which causes irreversible changes that lead to significant violations of the structure and function of the uterus, which leads to the conclusion that excessive drug use has a direct negative impact on the reproductive system.
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