Morphological condition of the pulp of intact and affected by caries third molars
To date, there is a theory that increased resistance to caries is observed in the teeth, which for any reason underwent destructive changes in the pulp. That is why there is a need to study the impact of pulp vitality on the development of the carious process. The aim of the research was to study the microscopic structure of epoxy sections of intact and carious third molars. We studied 4 intact and 6 carious third molars. For this purpose, specimens were made taking into account the free penetration of the fixative solution into the pulp. To this end, immediately after the tooth was removed, we cut off its roots almost near the crown, preserving the integrity of the latter. The method relied on the impregnation of specimens with epoxy resin, according to the method of epoxy plastination of tooth specimens, developed at the Department of Human Anatomy of Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy. The epoxy blocks were cut with a disk into two halves until the hard tissues of the tooth crown were exposed together with the pulp. We found that the hard tissues (dentin and enamel coating) of intact third molars did not have any structural defects. However, their pulp chamber contained mainly an amorphous substance, devoid of any typical pulp tissue structures. That is, the pulp was in a state of complete devolution. Quite the opposite presentation was observed in specimens of carious teeth. We found that their pulp chamber contained quite noticeable tissue structures typical of the dental pulp. It is interesting that in the subodontoblastic layer, in front of the carious alteration of the enamel, there was compaction of the pulp, which may be due to infiltration of perivascular connective tissue by immunocompetent cells. It was found that on the border with carious destruction of enamel, there was a compacted spot of altered dentin, whose matrix was intensely pigmented in brown colour, due to the accumulation of melanin on the dentino-enamel junction. Its excessive formation is associated with the destruction of protein-carbohydrate complexes of organic matter in the deep layers of dentin. We found that the pulp compaction and the focus of carious alteration of the enamel are projectively connected by a radial cord of altered dentin, known in the literature as “dead tracts”. Hence, there is reason to believe that the identified changes indicate a latent form of caries, with a pulpogenic mechanism of development. Thus, it can be argued that the teeth, which for any reason underwent degenerative changes in the pulp, are not prone to carious lesions, whereas in carious teeth, the pulp is active and involved in the pathogenesis of the carious process.
 Baume, L. J. (1980). The Biology of Pulp and Dentine. Ed.: Myers H.M.: Monographs in Oral science. Basel: Karger.
 Black, G. V., & Blackwell, R. E. (1915). Some Observations on Mottled Teeth. Proceedings of the Pan-Pacific Dental Congress. San Francisco.
 Brookes, S. J., Berdal, A., Vieira, A. R., Babajko, S., & Kirkham, J. (2018). Tooth Enamel: Frontiers in Mineral Chemistry and Biochemistry, Integrative Cell Biology and Genetics. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 1153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01153
 Brusentsova, A. E., Peretyagina, I. N., & Tishkov, D. S. (2016). Immunological status of dental pulp and its change in acute and chronic forms of pulpitis. Herald of New Medical Technologies, 23(2), 67-71. doi: 10.12737/20427
 Cawson, R. A., & Odell, E. W. (2008). Cawson’s Essentials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine. 8-th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
 Chen, X., Daliri, E. B.-M., Chelliah, R., & Oh, D.-H. (2020). Isolation and identification of potentially pathogenic microorganisms associated with dental caries in human teeth biofilms. Microorganisms, 8(10), 1-12. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8101596
 Divaris, K., Fisher E. L., Shugars, D. A., & White, Jr. R. P. (2012). Risk factors for third molar occlusal caries: A longitudinal clinical investigation. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 70(8), 1771-1780.
 Enright, J. J., Friesell, H. E., & Tresher, M. O. (1932). Studies of the cause and nature of dental caries. J. Dent. Res., 12, 759.
 Filenko, B. M. (2020). Etiopathogenetic parallels of morphological changes in chronic dental caries and its complications (literature review). Ukrainian Dental Almanac, 2, 40-46. ISSN: 2409-0255.
 Gasyuk, A. P., Kostyrenko, O. P., & Nasonov, P. I. (2017). Morphogenesis of enamel caries. Ternopil Dental Summit: materials of the scientific-practical conference with international participation, dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the state higher educational institution “Ternopil State Medical University named after I.Ya. Gorbachev Ministry of Health of Ukraine”; Ternopil: Ternopil State Medical University. Available from: https://repository.tdmu.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/1/8513/Conference%20Proceedings%20TDS.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
 Gasyuk, P. A., Vorobets, A. B., Kostyrenko, O. P. & Parfyonova, V. S. (2015). Morphogenesis of precariotic processes in enamel and dentin of large molars of a person. Mathematical Morphology: Electronic Metematic Biomedical Journal, 14(2), 1-8. ISSN: 1819-3730. Available from: http://sgma.alpha-design.ru/MMORPH/N-46-html/gasuk-2/gasuk-2.htm
 Gamzaev, B. M., Jafarova, A. R., Guseinova R. N., Abbasova R. A., Yusubova Sh. R., Alizade A. R., & Ibragimova L. K. (2019). The role of the alkaline factor in the development of dental caries. Dentistry Problems, 15(4), 5-10. doi: 10.18481/2077-7566-2019-15-4-5-10
 Glinkin, V. V., Clemin, V. A., & Glinkina, V. V. (2018). The relationship between the structure of the hard tissues of the tooth and the development of the carious process. In: G.Yu. Gulyaev, Innovative development of science and education: monograph. Penza: ICNS “Science and Education”. ISBN: 978-5-907046-54-2
 Grintsova, N. B., Vasko, L. V., Kiptenko, L. I., & Gortinskaya, O. M. (2017). Histological structure of the organs of the oral cavity. General principles of structural organization of the oral mucosa: a textbook. Sumy: Sumy State University. ISBN: 978-966-657-651-7
 Jenkins, G. R. (1978). The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Mouth. 4th ed. Oxford.
 Heigetyan, A. V., Bragin, E. A., Maksyukov, S. Yu., Labushkina, A. V., Alutina, E. V., & Kharseeva, G. G. (2015). Immunological parameters in patients with caries of the contact surfaces of the lateral teeth. Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, 8, 52-54.
 Khomenko, L. O., Bidenko, N. V., Ostapko, O. I., Golubeva, I. M., Sorochenko, G. V., & Trachuk, Yu. M. (2013). Tooth decay control: evolution concept. Dentistry: From Science to Practice, 1, 53-65.
 Kidd, E. A. M., & Fejerskov. O. (2004). What constitutes dental caries? Histopathology of carious enamel and dentine related to the action of cariogenic biofilms. J. Dent. Res., 83, 35-38.
 Kostilenko, Y. P., & Boyko, I. V. (2004). A method of making preparations for intravital preserved teeth for multipurpose research. Clinical Anatomy and Operative Surgery, 3(2), 63-65. ISSN: 1727-0847
 Kostilenko, Y. P., & Boyko, I. V. (2007). Enamel Structure and the Problem of Caries: monograph. Poltava. ISBN: 978-966-8716-06-5
 Kostylenko, Yu. P., Starchenko, I. I., Pryluky, O. K., & Boyko, I. V. (2012). VDNZU “Ukrainian Medical Dental Academy”, patent owner. Method of Placing Biological Tissues in Epoxy Resin for Macro-microscopic Studies. Utility model patent G01N1/00.u201201052
 Marsh, P. D. (2004). Dental plaque as a microbial biofilm. Caries Res., 38, 204-211.
 Mikaelyan, N. P., & Komarov, O. S. (2019). Biochemistry of Oral Cavity Hard Tissues in Health and Disease. Moscow. ISBN: 978-5-7974-0574-0
 Mira, A., Simon-Soro, A., & Curtis, M. A. (2017). Role of microbial communities in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and caries. J. Clin. Periodontol., 44, 23-38.
 Moscowsky, A. V., Lyubovtseva, L. A., & Shumsky, A. V. (2008). Clinical Morphology and Immunology of the Dental Pulp. Cheboksary: Publishing house of the Chuvash University.
 Moscowsky, A. V., Urukov, Y. N., Viktorov, V. N., Voropaeva, L. A., Lezhenina, S. V., Moskovskaya, O. I. … Tsyganov, V. P. (2018). The role of tissue basophils in the regulation of the neurotransmitter status of the dental pulp in health and disease. Medical Almanac, 53(2), 51-53.
 Rosebury, T. (1933). The problem of dental caries. Archives of Pathol., 15, 260.
 Shinkevich, V. I., & Kaidashev, S. P. (2019). The contribution of macrophages to the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis in humans and research prospects. Literature review. Zaporozhye Medical Journal, 21(1(112)), 137-143 doi: 10.14739/2310-1210
 Sirak, S. V., Shchetinin, E. V., Kobylkina, T. L., Adamchik, A. A., Sirak, A. G., & Vafiadi, M. J. (2016). Histochemical features of reparative dentinogenesis of the dental pulp. Russian Dental Journal, 20(6), 301-304. doi: 10.18821/1728-2802
 Tkachenko, I. P., Brailko, N. N., Kovalenko, V. V., Nazarenko, Z. Yu., & Sheshukova, O. V. (2018). Morphological examination of enamel and dentin of teeth with a carious process and non-carious lesions. Wiadomości Lekarskie, LXXI(5(II)), 1001-1005.
 Tkachenko, I. M., & Kovalenko, B. B. (2017). Morphological and Chemical Examination of Tooth Enamel and Dentin with Increased Abrasion and Caries. Modern methodology of science and education. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw.
 Veiga, N., Aires, D., Douglas, F., Pereira, M., Vaz, A., Rama, L. … Bexiga, F. (2016). Dental caries: A review. Journal of Dental and Oral Health, 2(5), 1-3. ISSN: 2369-4475
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.