Morphological evaluation of anal canal wound healing after combined operations for combined anorectal pathology
The urgency of the problem of postoperative wound healing after combined operations for combined pathology of the anal canal and rectum is quite high and contributes to the introduction into the practice of coloproctologists of new modern surgical technologies for the treatment of this pathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a comparative morphological assessment of postoperative wound healing in patients with combined pathology of the anal canal and rectum after combined operations using modern high-frequency electrosurgical and radiosurgical technologies. The results of surgical treatment of 689 patients with combined pathology of the anal canal and rectum using high-frequency electrosurgery and radiowave surgery with morphological assessment of wound healing on 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 days of the postoperative period, which were divided into 4 study groups. Using of “Surgitron” and “KLS Martin” devices for the treatment of patients with combined pathology of the anal canal and rectum was accompanied by the formation of the thinnest layers of coagulation necrosis in tissues with a depth of 0.189±0.085 mm and 0.194±0.090 mm respectively and as result patients of the first and fourth study groups had the shortest duration of inpatient treatment, which was 3-5 days and the average time of wound healing, which was 14-15 days. Patients in these study groups had the lowest inflammatory neutrophil reaction in postoperative wounds on day 3, which rapidly disappeared by day 5, on days 7-14 they had active reparative processes with the appearance of fibroblasts and connective tissue fibers, and on 21 day squamous epithelial cells, which indicated the processes of active epithelialization of wounds. The effect on the tissues of the devices “EFA” and “ERBE ICC 200” was deeper than in the above groups, forming a layer of coagulation tissue necrosis with a depth of 0.208±0.097 mm and 0.302±0.107 mm respectively, which was accompanied by patients of the third and second study groups with longer terms of inpatient treatment, which amounted to 5-7 days and increase the duration of wound healing, which amounted to 16-19 days. Patients in the 2nd and 3rd study groups showed a more pronounced inflammatory neutrophilic reaction in postoperative wounds on the 3rd day, which did not disappear until the 5th day and in half of the cases the presence of a significant number of segmental neutrophils and bacterial accumulations persisted. On days 7-14 they had weak reparative processes with the appearance of single fibroblasts and a small number of connective tissue fibers and on the 21st day single squamous epithelial cells, which indicated slow processes of wound epithelization. Using of radio-wave surgery and high-frequency electrosurgery devices promotes active epithelialization of tissues preventing scar strictures of the anal canal and improves the rehabilitation of patients in the postoperative period.
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