OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY OF
ANATOMISTS, HISTOLOGISTS, EMBRYOLOGISTS AND
TOPOGRAPHIC ANATOMISTS OF UKRAINE
ВІСНИК МОРФОЛОГІЇ
REPORTS OF MORPHOLOGY
DOI: 10.31393
ISSN 1818-1295
eISSN 2616-6194
Vol. 26, №2, 2020
Scientific peer-reviewed journal in the fields of normal and pathological anatomy, histology, cytology
and embryology, topographical anatomy and operative surgery, biomedical anthropology, ecology,
molecular biology, biology of development
Published since 1993
Periodicity: 4 times a year
Vinnytsya 2020
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
ВIСНИК МОРФОЛОГIЇ - REPORTS OF MORPHOLOGY
Founded by the "Scientific Society of Anatomists, Histologists, Embryologists, and Topographic
Anatomists of Ukraine" and National Pyrogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya in 1993
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Professional scientific publication of Ukraine in the field of medical sciences in specialties 221, 222, 228, 229
According to the list of professional scientific publications of Ukraine, approved by the order of the Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine No. 1188 of 24.09.2020 (Annex 5)
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Berenshtein E.L. (Jerusalem), Byard R. (Adelaida), Dgebuadze М.А. (Tbilisi), Graeb C. (Hof),
Gulmen M.K. (Adana), Guminskyi Yu.Y. (Vinnytsya), Herashchenko S.B. (Ivano-Frankivsk),
Juenemann A.G.M. (Rostock), Kryvko Yu.Ya. (Lviv), Ocheredko O.M. (Vinnytsya), Rejdak R. (Lublin),
Sarafinyuk L.А. (Vinnytsya), Shepitko V.I. (Poltava), Shinkaruk-Dykovytska M.M. (Vinnytsya),
Stechenko L.O. (Kyiv), Wójcik Waldemar (Lublin)
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(Ternopil), Golovatskyy A.S. (Uzhgorod), Yeroshenko G.A. (Poltava), Kovalchuk O.I. (Kyiv), Kostylenko Yu.P.
(Poltava), Kostyuk G.Ya. (Vinnytsya), Lutsyk O.D. (Lviv), Maievskyi O.Ye. (Kyiv), Makar B.G. (Chernivtsi),
Mishalov V.D. (Kyiv), Nebesna Z.M. (Ternopil), Olkhovskyy V.O. (Kharkiv), Piskun R.P. (Vinnytsya),
Rudyk S.K. (Kyiv), Sikora V.Z. (Sumy), Skybo G.G. (Kyiv), Sokurenko L.M. (Kyiv), Tverdokhlib I.V. (Dnipro),
Tereshchenko V.P. (Kyiv), Topka E.G. (Dnipro), Fedonyuk L.Ya. (Ternopil), Fomina L.V. (Vinnytsya),
Furman Yu.M. (Vinnytsya), Sherstyuk O.O. (Poltava), Yatsenko V.P. (Kyiv)
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
CONTENT
Veresiuk T.O., Selskyy P.R. Histological changes of the arterial bed of the hind limbs of the rats
under condition of the acute ischemia-reperfusion and correction with the carbacetam ...................................... 5
Cherepakha O.L., Gadzhula N.G., Hnenna V.O., Hrytsenko A.S. Features of translation of some
rarely used anthropometric terms from Ukrainian into English .......................................................................... 12
Nechyporuk V.M., Korda M.M., Kovalchuk O.V. Morphological changes of the liver under conditions
of hyperhomocysteinemia in the background of hypo- and hyperthyroidism ..................................................... 19
Mateshuk-Vatseba L.R., Hirniak I.I., Pidvalna U.Y. Morphological features of the wall of common
bile duct under the conditions of experimental opioid exposure ........................................................................ 26
Yasniuk М.V., Kaminska О.A., Rodinkova V.V. Grass pollen morphology investigation as a basis
for monitoring of allergenic biological particles in an automatic mode ............................................................... 32
Tymoshenko I.A., Sokurenko L.M., Yanchyshyn A.Ya., Pastukhova V.A. Comparative characteristics
of the manifestations of damage and reparative processes in the mucous membrane of the duodenum
of rats under the conditions of skin burns and skin burns associated with diabetes ......................................... 39
Bobyr V.V., Stechenko L.O., Shirobokov V.P., Nazarchuk O.A., Rymsha O.V. The role of sorbents
and probiotics in prevention of structural and morphological disorders in the small intestine of
animals developing in dysbiosis ........................................................................................................................ 45
Gunas V.I., Kotsyura O.O., Babych L.V., Shevchuk Yu.G., Cherkasova O.V. Features of correlations
of the sizes of molars with cephalometric indicators of men of the western region of Ukraine .......................... 51
Garazdiuk M.S., Dubolazov O.V., Malanchuk S.M. Use of azimuthal-invariant Mueller-matrix images
of linear dichroism of histological sections of brain substance for diagnosis of hemorrhage genesis ................ 62
Maryenko N.I., Stepanenko O.Yu. Fractal dimension of phylogenetically different parts of the human
cerebellum (magnetic resonance imaging study) .............................................................................................. 67
Professor Cherkasov Viktor Gavrylovych.....................................................................................................74
REPORTS OF MORPHOLOGY
Official Journal of the Scientific Society of Anatomists,
Histologists, Embryologists and Topographic Anatomists
of Ukraine
Histological changes of the arterial bed of the hind limbs of the rats
under condition of the acute ischemia-reperfusion and correction
with the carbacetam
Veresiuk T.O., Selskyy P.R.
I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
The ischemic-reperfusion lesion is a complex multifactorial damage of the primary
ischemic tissues as a result of restoration of the arterial blood circulation in them,
which is accompanied by local morpho-functional reorganization of the vascular bed of
the hind limbs of the rats. One of the promising means in the treatment and prevention
of the reperfusion disorders is a carbacetam, which smooths the phenomena of hypo-
and hyperperfusion in the post-ischemic period. The aim of the study was to established
the manifestations of the morpho-functional remodeling of the vascular bed of the hind
limbs of the rats in ischemia-reperfusion and under conditions of correction with
carbacetam. Histological examination of the vascular bed of the hind limbs of 30 rats
under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion (group I) and 30 rats in the simulation of
ischemia-reperfusion, which in the post-ischemic period administered carbacetam
once a day (5 mg/kg) for 14 days (group II) were done. There were 6 intact animals in the
control group. Simulation of ischemia was performed by applying SWAT rubber
tourniquets on the hind limbs for 2 hours, and reperfusion - by removing of the tourniquet.
The animals of the experimental groups were divided into 5 subgroups with reperfusion
terms after 1, 2 hours and 1 day, as well as after 7 and 14 days. Histological examination
was performed according to generally accepted methods. The vascular bed in the
middle third of the thigh and the shin below the tourniquet was examined using a
Bresser Trino Researcher 40x-1000x microscope. Analyzing of the obtained results,
was established that after 1 hour of the reperfusion the histological changes became a
systemic, and after 1 day it were more significant. It should be noted that the thickness
of the vessel walls increased, and the elastic membranes were partially eligned, thinned
and torned. The stepwise clarity of the arterials walls structure was lost. The edema
acquired a total nature. The histological examination of the vessels after 7 days revealed
that the swelling of the walls decreased and the condition of the elastic frame was
improved. There was a proliferation of collagen fibers in the adventitia, which was a
response to ischemic effects. It is noted that after 14 days in all wall membranes the
proliferative activity of fiboblasts was remained. Under the conditions of the correction
with the carbacetam after 2 hours, the structural positive dynamics became more
pronounced and increased to a maximum level after 7 days of the experiment. The
number of the modified and exfoliated endothelial cells decreased, and the condition of
smooth myocytes increased. Histologically, the gradual restoration of endothelial
coverage of the intima was established. As follows, ischemia and reperfusion cause
vascular remodeling after 1 hour with a peak of the manifestations after 1 day of the
reperfusion, which includes edematous syndrome, dystrophic-degenerative changes
with an inflammatory response to the damage, and in the late reperfusion period increased
a fibroblasts activity. Gradual return of morphological changes occurs after 14 days of
the experiment. Under the conditions of correction, the acceleration of the remodeling
with stabilization of the process and the most possible structural restoration after 7
days of the study was noted.
Keywords: artery, remodeling, ischemia-reperfusion, elastic membranes, carbacetam.
ARTICLE INFO
Received: 15 June, 2020
Accepted: 20 July, 2020
UDC: 616.137.83/93-091.8:616-
005.4:615.214.3]-092.9
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
e-mail: taras-o@ukr.net
Veresiuk T.O.
©
2020 National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya
5
DOI: 10.31393/morphology-journal-2020-26(2)-01
Reports of Morphology, Vol. 26, №2, Pages 5-11
ISSN 1818-1295 eISSN 2616-6194
journal homepage:
https://morphology-journal.com
6
ISSN 1818-1295 eISSN 2616-6194 Reports of Morphology
Histological changes of the arterial bed of the hind limbs of the rats under condition of the acute...
Introduction
Ischemic-reperfusion lesion is a complex multifactorial
process of damage and dysfunction of primary ischemic
tissues as a result of restoration of arterial blood circulation
in conditions of acute or chronic ischemia [9, 11, 13, 15, 19,
22]. Arterial ischemia is one of the main reasons for the
deterioration of the quality of life of patients, their early
disability and accounts for about 10% of all gunshot wounds
in the structure of combat trauma [5, 15]. In 67% of cases of
vascular damage at the prehospital stage, a tourniquet is
applied, which can induce reperfusion damage [4, 9, 10, 15,
22].
Recently, more and more attention in the treatment and
prevention of ischemic disorders is paid to nootropic drugs
that have metabolic, neuroprotective, antiplatelet, antioxidant
effects, as well as smoothing the phenomena of hypo- and
hyperperfusion in the postischemic period, increase
microcirculation in tissues. Among the new drugs,
carbacetam, an endogenous modulator of the GABA-
benzodiazepine receptor complex derived from β-carboline,
is markedly secreted [7, 23]. The effectiveness of its use is
shown in the work on the restoration of cognitive impairment,
reduction of endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress
in polytrauma [23].
Literature data indicate that the morphological
manifestations of the syndrome of ischemia and reperfusion
are impaired hemomicrocirculation, which is histologically
manifested by endothelial edema, leukocyte-endothelial
adhesion, hemodynamic disorders, reduction of
microvascular and arteriovenous shunting, however, morpho-
functional changes in arteries of large diameter, their
dynamics, as well as the search for means of tissue
protection remains open for further research [9, 13].
However, in reviewing the scientific and experimental
literature, we did not find any publications on the use of this
drug for the treatment and prevention of complications of
ischemia-reperfusion, which prompted an attempt to use
carbacetam to study the local correction of reperfusion.
The aim of the study was to establish the manifestations
of morphofunctional reorganization of the vascular bed of
the hind limbs of rats during ischemia-reperfusion and under
conditions of correction with carbacetam.
Materials and methods
Histological examination of the vascular bed of 60 rats
have been done.
Ischemia was modeled by applying SWAT (Stretch-Wrap-
And-Tuck) rubber tourniquets to the right hind limb of the
animal at the level of the inguinal fold for 2 hours under
thiopental-sodium anesthesia. The reperfusion syndrome
was modeled by removing the tourniquet and restoring blood
circulation in the previously ischemic limb 2 hours after
application. Observations of animals were carried out for 14
days.
During the experiment, the experimental animals were
divided into three groups:
- first experimental group (30 rats) - animals with
simulation of ischemic-reperfusion injury;
- second experimental group (30 rats) - animals with
simulation of ischemic-reperfusion damage, in which 1-oxo-
3.3.6-trimethyl-1.2.3.4-tetrahydroindolo [2.3-c] quinolines
(carbacetam) was injected intraperitoneally in the
reperfusion period for the purpose of correction at a dose of
5 mg per kilogram of body weight 1 time per day for 14 days
of the reperfusion period;
- control group (6 rats) - intact animals.
Animals of the first and second experimental groups
were divided into 5 subgroups (6 animals each). The model
of the early post-ischemic period in both groups was
presented by subgroups of animals with reperfusion
changes after 1, 2 hours and 1 day, and the model of the late
reperfusion period - by subgroups of animals 7 and 14 days
after removal of the tourniquet.
All studies were conducted in compliance with the main
provisions of the Law of Ukraine 3447-IV of 21.02.06 "On
the protection of animals from cruel treatment" (2006) and
Council of Europe Directive 2010/63 EU on animal
experiments.
Euthanasia of animals was performed by administration
of thiopental-sodium anesthesia (500 mg/kg body weight
intraperitoneally), followed by decapitation and collection of
biological material. Soft tissue samples, together with the
vascular-nervous bundle of the hind limb of the animals,
were taken below the level of the tourniquet at the level of the
middle third of the thigh, followed by fixation, dehydration
and paraffin removal, which were performed according to
conventional methods. Prepared a series of sections with a
thickness of 4-5 μm, made on a microtome MS-2. The latter,
after dewaxing, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin,
picrofuchsin by Van Gieson's method, resorcin fuchsin by
Weigert's elastic stain method, and Heidenhain's AZAN
trichrome stain method [17]. This made it possible to obtain
differentiated tissue staining due to the heterogeneity of the
perception of different dyes by biological tissues.
Examination of the preparations was performed using a
Bresser Trino Researcher 40x-1000x microscope (serial
number 0913137). The most demonstrative histological
specimens were photographed using a Digital Camera for
Microscope Science Lab DCM 820 Resolution 8.0 Mp.
Results
Histological examination of the main arteries and veins
of the thigh and lower leg showed that the structural
organization of their walls corresponds to the generally
accepted criteria. Elastic membranes are clearly contoured
in the form of a homogeneous eosinophilic strip. Arteria of
the tibia and femur segments differ only in diameter (Fig. 1).
After 1 hour of reperfusion changes became systemic
and appeared at all levels of structural organization of blood
vessels. Rounded, due to the swelling of the cytoplasm,
endothelial cells protruded into the lumen of blood vessels,